Penis Enlargement – a century’s year old practice
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Penis enlargement practices have been going on for centuries. There is documentation, with African tribes, of it going back as far as 2000 years ago.

Yet the idea of actually being able to enlarge a online pharmacy viagra has come into effect in the last 20-30 years with medically backed development of penis traction devices, proven penis exercises programs and, even, surgical procedures.

Two thousand years ago, men looking to enlarge their penis used manual methods like hanging weights. Polynesian men used a more advanced method for penis enlargement, using a woven sleeve to increase their penis length. Other than these methods, the types of instruments used to encourage penis growth were risky and extremely hazardous.

Fortunately, alternative methods have come into use. Developments have been made that can transform the penis, making it thicker and longer.


Most of psychiatry is pseudoscience through and through
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As seen here by Richard DeGrandpre, who is a past senior editor of Adbusters magazine

Most of psychiatry is pseudoscience through and through. The reason why is this: not only does the psychiatry establishment fail to distinguish between correlation and causation – a scientific must – it blatantly refuses to. And for good reason: most of the dogma in psychiatry is not scientifically proven, nor could be.

The core hoax here is psychiatry’s brain --> behavior theory. According to biological psychiatry, all behavior is caused by the brain and so any abnormal behavior is caused by an abnormal brain. According to this cartoon logic, love and hate are not reactions to the outer world, they are brain states caused by the workings of the brain. If you don’t believe this, you should also not believe the former. Depression and schizophrenia are expressed in the brain, but they are as connected to the outer world as are love and hate.

And then there’s the BRAIN --> BEHAVIOR --> DRUG theory of psychiatry. Because a drug affects the abnormal behavior, it proves that the problem was biological after all. This is as wrongheaded as saying that because online pharmacy helps you get an erection, you love Viagra as much as your wife. Again, research shows the absurdity of psychiatry’s so-called science.

Unfortunately for psychiatry, studies keep turning up that suggest links between environment and mental health. For instance, studies show that psychotherapy and drug therapy both alter brain chemistry in ways that alter our psychological states of mind (indeed: look at the Latest Placebo Research, bottom right).

The DRUG --> BRAIN theory of psychiatry is hugely important because it is used as justification for such things as removing people from the world (which doesn’t matter to their mental state) and forcing drugs and other radical measures upon them. This is the history of psychiatry. Such power based on such nonsense should be among the most feared things in our society, even if it is not. As with the Nazis, biology serves to justify horrible acts against people. Whether this is done with the best intentions, or the worst, doesn’t matter.


How to Use Cascara Sagrada as a Constipation Remedy
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See also: cheap cialis | 


Cascara Sagrada comes from the bark of the buckthorn tree. It stimulates your colon to produce stronger contraction than normal. When it does this, it can work on the most difficult and chronic cases of constipation. It is one of the herbal constipation remedies with a strong laxative effect. It will be found in many herbal combinations that are mixed for constipation. Cascara has Chrysophanic acid, which stimulates your colon wall to produce peristaltic action. Cascara also contains a chemical called emodin, which controls the strong action of Chrysophonic acid thus producing a balanced laxative effect.If you use cascara in a constipation remedy mixture, do not use this mixture for more than thirty days. After 30 days take a rest from it. Do not use Cascara in large amounts and for long periods since it can cause intestinal distress and become habit-forming. When you use it, you will see results in 1-2 days.Cascara Sagrada also stimulates secretions from the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and stomach. These secretions give Cascara additional laxative effects.Do not use Cascara Sagrada if you have irritable bowel syndrome, hemorrhoids, or ulcers. Use Cascara for a limited time. It can become habit-forming and, if used for an extended time, it can increase the risk of colon cancer. Its use also causes you to lose potassium with each bowel movement.If you have liver problems do not use cascara sagrada full strength. Use it in combination with other herbs. Cascara is known to put a strain on the liver.You can take Cascara Sagrada as a single herb for constipation. As a single herb, it can cause cramping and nausea. However, I recommend you used it with other herbs. In an herbal combination, the combination can detoxify your colon, tonify your colon walls, cleanse the blood and produce other synergistic actions.In Michael Murray, N.D., book called The Pill Book Guide to Natural Medicines, he talks about the drug interaction of cascara sagrada,“Cascara and other stimulant laxatives may decrease absorption of other drugs that pass through the gastrointestinal tract. If you are currently taking an oral cheap viagra, talk to your pharmacist or doctor before self-medicating with cascara.Cascara may potentiate the action of digoxin and other heart medications due to potassium depletion. The use of cascara with thiazide diuretics and corticosteroids may further decrease potassium levels.”Recommend dose for the cascara sagrada, as a single herb, is 350 – 1000mg just before bedtime.Use 1-4 cascara sagrada powder capsules a night, but do not use these capsules for more than 10 days. Start with 1 capsule a night and increase the amount each day until you get results you want.For a laxative tea, use one teaspoon of cascara bark in 3 cups of boiling water for 20 minutes. Drink 1-2 cups of tea just before bedtime after it has cooled to room temperature.Cascara Sagrada is a strong constipation remedy and will help you clean out your colon even if you have chronic constipation. Use it sparely and for a short time.

MCQ TEST Chapter=3 (ENZYMES)
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MCQ TEST Chapter=3 (ENZYMES)


Q:1: The catalytic activity of an enzyme is restricted to its small portion called

(A) Active site

(B) Passive site
(C) Allosteric site

(D) All Choices are correct

Q:2: An activated enzyme made of polypeptide chain and a co-factor is


(A) Coenzyme

(B) Substrate
(C) Apoenzyme

(D) Holoenzyme

Q:3: Koshland in 1959 proposed


(A) Fluid mosaic model

(B) Induce fit model
(C) Lock and key model

(D) Reflective index model

Q:4: Enzymes are largely _________________________ in their chemical nature.


(A) Lipids

(B) Steroids
(C) Proteinaceous

(D) All A, B and C

Q:5: Who proposed “lock and key” model to study enzyme – substrate interaction?

(A) Koshland (1959)
(B) Wilhelm Kuhne (1878)
(C) Fischer (1898)
(D) None of these

Q:6: In human body the optimum temperature for enzymatic activities is

(A) 37oC
(B) 40oC
(C) 25oC
(D) 30oC

Q:7: Optimum pH value for pepsin is

(A) 5.5
(B) 7.4
(C) 4.1
(D) 1.4

Q:8: Competitive inhibitors stop an enzyme from working by

(A) Changing the shape of the enzyme
(B) merging with the substrate instead
(C) blocking the active site of the enzyme
(D) combining with the product of the reaction

Q:9: The enzymes are sensitive to

(A) Changes in pH
(B) Changes in temperature
(C) Both A and B
(D) None of these

Q:10: Enzyme B requires Zn2+ in order to catalyze the conversion of substrate X. The zinc is best identified as a(n):

(A) Coenzyme
(B) Activator
(C) Substrate
(D) Product

Q:11: The enzyme minus its coenzyme is referred to as the

(A) Iso-enzyme
(B) Metalloenzyme
(C) Apoenzyme
(D) All of these

Q:12: The “lock and key” model of enzyme action illustrates that a particular enzyme molecule


(A) forms a permanent enzyme-substrate complex
(B) may be destroyed and resynthesized several times
(C) interacts with a specific type of substrate molecule
(D) reacts at identical rates under all conditions

Q:13: Consider this reaction. A + B --> C + D + energy.

(A) This reaction is exergonic
(B) An enzyme could still speed the reaction
(C) A and B are reactants; C and D are products
(D) All of these are correct

Q:14: An cheap cialis that changes the overall shape and chemistry of an enzyme is known as a(n)

(A) Auto-steric inhibitor

(B) Competitive inhibitor
(C) Steric inhibitor

(D) Noncompetitive inhibitor

Q:15: Non-protein components of enzymes are known as


(A) Coenzymes

(B) Activators
(C) Cofactors

(D) All A, B, and C

Q:16: The reaction below occurs within the cells to prevent the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. In this reaction, catalase functions as an

</span></strong>













(A) Enzyme in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide
(B) Enzyme in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide
(C) Emulsifier in the digestion of hydrogen peroxide
(D) Indicator in the detection of hydrogen peroxide


Q:17: An enzyme is generally named by adding ________ to the end of the name of the ____________.

(A) "-ase". coenzyme
(B) "-ase". cell in which it is found
(C) "-ose". substrate .
(D) "-ase". substrate

Q:18: The minimum amount of energy needed for a process to occur is called the

(A) Minimal energy theory
(B) Process energy
(C) Kinetic energy
(D) Activation energy

Q:19: A student conducts an experiment to test the efficiency of a certain enzyme. Which would probably not result in a change in the enzyme's efficiency?

(A) Adding an acidic solution to the setup
(B) Adding more substrate but not enzyme
(C) Increasing temperature of solution
(D)All a, b, & c change enzyme's efficiency

Q:20: Enzymes function as

(A) Organic catalysts
(B) Inorganic catalysts
(C) Inhibitors
(D) All of these

Q:21: A catalyst is a chemical involved in, but not ____________ by, a chemical reaction.

(A) Supported
(B) Changed
(C) Controlled
(D) All of these

Q:22: Many enzymes function by __________________ the
activation energy of reactions.
</span></strong>
(A) Increasing

(B) Promoting
(C) Lowering

(D) Both A and B

Q:23: An uncatalysed reaction requires a


(A) Higher activation energy

(B) Lower activation energy
(C) Balanced activation energy

(D) All of these

Q:24: It suggests that the binding of the substrate to the enzyme alters the structure of the enzyme, placing some strain on the substrate and further facilitating the reaction.


(A) Lock and Key hypothesis

(B) Induced fit hypothesis
(C) Fischer’s hypothesis

(D) D.D. Wood’s hypothesis

Q:25:
They are non-protein organic molecules bound to enzymes near the active site.

(A) Activators

(B) Coenzymes
(C) Holoenzymes

(D) All of these

Q:26: The first step in any reaction catalysed by an enzyme is the formation of a specific association between the molecules called an


(A) Enzyme-product complex

(B) Enzyme-intermediate complex
(C) Enzyme-substrate complex

(D) None of these

Q:27: The function of competitive inhibitors is defined by their ability to interact or bind to


(A) The active site of an enzyme

(B) Regulatory sub-units of an enzyme
(C) Non-competitive inhibitor

(D) Enzyme cofactors

Q:28: If an enzyme solution is saturated with substrate, the most effective way to obtain an even faster yield of products would be

(A) Add more of the enzymes
(B) Add more substrate
(C) Add an allosteric inhibitor
(D) Add a non-competitive inhibitor

Q:29: During _____________ the final product of a metabolic pathway turn off the first step of metabolic pathway.

(A) Positive feed back
(B) Negative feed back
(C) Competitive feed back
(D) Both A and C

Q:30: _____________ occurs when the inhibitory chemical, which does not have to resemble the substrate, binds to the enzyme other than at the active site.

(A) Noncompetitive Inhibition
(B) Competitive Inhibition
(C) Uncatalysed reaction
(D) All A, B and C

Q:31: Which one is not attribute of enzyme

(A) Specific in nature
(B) Protein in chemistry
(C) Consumed in reaction
(D) Increases rate of reaction

Q:32: Which one inactivates an enzyme by indirectly changing the shape of the active site of an enzyme


(A) Non-competitive inhibitor
(B) Competitive inhibitor
(C) Coenzyme
(D) Activator

Q:33: The enzymes are classified into

(A) Five groups
(B) Three groups
(C) Six groups
(D) Four groups

Q:34: Non-proteinaceous part of holoenzyme is

(A) Prosthetic group
(B) Apoenzyme
(C) Tubulin
(D) None of these

Q:35: Enymes are highly specific for a given substrate which is due to the shape of their

(A) Active site
(B) Allosteric site
(C) Non-competitive site
(D) None of these

Q:36: The name enzyme was suggested in 1878 by the German physiologist

(A) Wilhelm Kuhne
(B) Koshland
(C) Fischer
(D) Paul Filder

Q:37: Proteinaceous part of holoenzyme is

(A) Prosthetic group
(B) Apoenzyme
(C) Lecithin
(D) None of these

Q:38: The "lock and key hypothesis" attempts to explain the mechanism of

(A) vacuole formation
(B) pinocytosis
(C) sharing of electrons
(D) enzyme specificity

Q:39: An enzyme that hydrolyzes protein will not act upon starch. This fact is an indication that enzymes are

(A) hydrolytic
(B) specific
(C) catalytic
(D) synthetic

Q:40: The site where enzyme catalyzed reaction takes place is called?

(A) Active site
(B) Allosteric site
(C) Denatures site
(D) Dead Site

Q:41: What is a cofactor?

(A) Inorganic ions
(B) Organic molecules
(C) Both a and b
(D) None of the above

Q:42: Mg+2 is an inorganic activator for the enzyme

(A) Phosophatase
(B) Carbonic anhydrase
(C) Enterokinase
(D) Amylase

Q:43: Zn+2 is an inorganic activator for enzyme.

(A) Carbonic anhydrase
(B) Phosophatase
(C) Chymotrypsin
(D) Maltase

Q:44: Which antibiotic blocks the active site of an enzyme that many bacteria used to make cell-walls.

(A) Amphotericin
(B) Gentamicin
(C) Penicillin
(D) Cephalosporin

Q:45: DDT and Parathion are inhibitors of key enzymes in

(A) Nervous system
(B) Respiratory system
(C) Digestive system
(D) Circulatory system

Q:46: At high temperature the rate of enzyme action decreases because the increased heat

(A) Changes the pH of the system
(B) Alters the active site of the enzyme
(C) Neutralize acids and bases in the system
(D) Increases the concentration of enzymes

Q:47: Which of the following enzymes would digest a fat?

(A) sucrase
(B) protease
(C) Ligase
(D) lipase

Q:48: In the Lock and Key model of enzyme action, the part of the enzyme that recognizes the substrate is known as the

(A) Enzyme-substrate complex
(B) Product
(C) Enzyme-product complex
(D) Active site

Q:49: Which model of enzyme action is represented in this diagram.

</span></strong>









</span></strong>(A) Fluid mosaic model
(B) Induce fit model
(C) Lock and key model
(D) Reflective index model

Q:50: A certain enzyme will hydrolyze egg white but not starch. Which statement best explains this observation?


(A) Starch molecules are too large to be hydrolyzed
(B) Enzyme molecules are specific in their actions
(C) Egg white acts as a coenzyme for hydrolysis
(D) Starch is composed of amino acids.

Q:51: At about 0 C, most enzymes are

(A) Inactive
(B) Active
(C) Destroyed
(D) Replicated

Q: 52: Vitamins are essential to the survival of organisms because vitamins usually function as

(A) Substrates
(B) Nucleic acids
(C) Co-enzymes
(D) Nucleosides

Q:53:When a molecule binds to an area of an enzyme that is not the active site, and changes the shape of the enzyme so that it no longer can work, this is called

(A) denaturation
(B) competitive inhibition
(C) noncompetitive inhibition
(D) substrate delocation

Q:54: What is a coenzyme?


(A) Inorganic ion
(B) Organic molecule
(C) Both A and B
(D) None of these

Q:55: Which statement best expresses the information represented in the graph shown?










(A) The action of enzymes varies with pH
(B) A pH of 7 provides the optimum environment for digestive enzymes
(C) Gastric juice is active at a pH extending from 0 to 12
(D) Acids have a pH greater than 7

Q:56: Which type of inhibitor is shown in this diagram?






(A) Competitive
(B) Non-competitive
(C) Allosteric

(D) Both B and C

Q:57: Which enzyme represents an enzyme functioning in this reaction?













</span></strong>(A) E
</span></strong>(B) C
(C) B

(D) A





Answer Key

1.A

2.D

3.B

4.C

5.C

6.A

7.D

8.C

9.C

10.B

11.C

12.C

13.D

14.D

15.D

16.A

17.D

18.D

19.D

20.A

21.B

22.C

23.A

24.B

25.B

26.C

27.A

28.A

29.B

30.A

31.C

32.A

33.C

34.A

35.A

36.A

37.B

38.D

39.B

40.A

41.C

42.A

43.A

44.C

45.A

46.B

47.D

48.D

49.C

50.B

51.A

52.C

53.C

54.B

55.A

65.D

57.C





</span></strong>

Ship wreck reveals ancient secrets of medicine
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It has been more than 2,000 years since a Roman merchant ship foundered off the west coast of the Italian peninsula and almost 40 years since the wreck was discovered. Now, the DNA trapped in medicines found aboard the ship is yielding secrets of health care in the ancient world.



Samples from two cheap cialis analyzed at the Smithsonian's Center for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics reveal a dried concoction of about a dozen medicinal herbs, including celery, alfalfa and wild onion, bound together with clay and zinc.



The cialis may have been used externally to treat skin conditions or dissolved in water or wine and taken for intestinal ailments such as dysentery, speculates Alain Touwaide, historian of sciences in the Department of Botany at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History.



The DNA tests confirm that medicines written about in ancient texts were actually used, said Touwaide, who with his wife and research partner, Emanuela Appetiti, obtained the tablets from the Italian Department of Antiquities in 2004.



Archaeologists have found older artifacts in Egypt and China, vessels for wines that contained herbal additives. Touwaide, however, says the shipwreck tablets are the first remains of ancient pharma-ceuticals to be found and also the first to be successfully analyzed with advanced DNA sequencing techniques. Preserved inside small tin boxes, the tablets are gray-green solid disks about an inch across and one-third of an inch thick.



"Extracting the DNA and sequencing it was not an easy task," Touwaide said. The analyses were conducted intermittently over four years, the last in October, by Smithsonian geneticist Robert Fleischer, who said that the results are preliminary and that more testing is in the works.



"I didn't expect it to work at all," said Fleischer. "They're very old. I had assumed everything had degraded, but they were in pretty remarkable condition. You could still see plant fibers."



The ingredients also include radish or cabbage, wild carrot or a relative, yarrow, jack bean and a hibiscus species. Fleischer found smaller genetic traces that may be a carrot relative named angelica, as well as willow, aster, the common bean and nasturtium.



A tramp freighter?



The ship was about 50 feet long, dates to around 130 B.C. and went down in the Gulf of Baratti off the coast of Tuscany. It was discovered in 1974 by members of the Italian Experimental Center for Underwater Archaelogy, but its contents were not surveyed and excavated until the 1980s. Touwaide and Appetiti received the tablet fragments under an agreement between the Smithsonian and the Archaelogical Department of Tuscany.



Divers retrieved several tin containers, 136 vials made of boxwood, a locker and medical tools. The large number of vials suggests that the medicines were being shipped rather than being used by the ship's doctor. "It might be both," said Touwaide. "There might have been a physician on board; there might have been a medical cargo."



Among the recovered objects are glass from Syria, a Cypriot pitcher and lamps from Asia Minor, suggesting the vessel may have been a tramp freighter plying the ports of the entire Mediterranean.



That may be a false assumption, according to Cemal Pulak, vice president of Texas A&M University's Institute of Nautical Archaeology, who said the items might have been stored in a port and placed on the ship all at once, or salvaged from another wreck. Pulak, who is not involved with the Tuscan wreck, has excavated and studied eastern Mediterranean shipwrecks that date to the Bronze Age.

_______________

References:



Higgins, Adrian. 2011. "Ship wreck reveals ancient secrets of medicine". Washington Post. Posted: February 1, 2011. Available online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/01/AR2011020100169.html?wprss=rss_nation/science

Ship wreck reveals ancient secrets of medicine
gewenard
It has been more than 2,000 years since a Roman merchant ship foundered off the west coast of the Italian peninsula and almost 40 years since the wreck was discovered. Now, the DNA trapped in medicines found aboard the ship is yielding secrets of health care in the ancient world.



Samples from two purchase cialis analyzed at the Smithsonian's Center for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics reveal a dried concoction of about a dozen medicinal herbs, including celery, alfalfa and wild onion, bound together with clay and zinc.



The cheap cialis may have been used externally to treat skin conditions or dissolved in water or wine and taken for intestinal ailments such as dysentery, speculates Alain Touwaide, historian of sciences in the Department of Botany at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History.



The DNA tests confirm that medicines written about in ancient texts were actually used, said Touwaide, who with his wife and research partner, Emanuela Appetiti, obtained the tablets from the Italian Department of Antiquities in 2004.



Archaeologists have found older artifacts in Egypt and China, vessels for wines that contained herbal additives. Touwaide, however, says the shipwreck tablets are the first remains of ancient pharma-ceuticals to be found and also the first to be successfully analyzed with advanced DNA sequencing techniques. Preserved inside small tin boxes, the tablets are gray-green solid disks about an inch across and one-third of an inch thick.



"Extracting the DNA and sequencing it was not an easy task," Touwaide said. The analyses were conducted intermittently over four years, the last in October, by Smithsonian geneticist Robert Fleischer, who said that the results are preliminary and that more testing is in the works.



"I didn't expect it to work at all," said Fleischer. "They're very old. I had assumed everything had degraded, but they were in pretty remarkable condition. You could still see plant fibers."



The ingredients also include radish or cabbage, wild carrot or a relative, yarrow, jack bean and a hibiscus species. Fleischer found smaller genetic traces that may be a carrot relative named angelica, as well as willow, aster, the common bean and nasturtium.



A tramp freighter?



The ship was about 50 feet long, dates to around 130 B.C. and went down in the Gulf of Baratti off the coast of Tuscany. It was discovered in 1974 by members of the Italian Experimental Center for Underwater Archaelogy, but its contents were not surveyed and excavated until the 1980s. Touwaide and Appetiti received the tablet fragments under an agreement between the Smithsonian and the Archaelogical Department of Tuscany.



Divers retrieved several tin containers, 136 vials made of boxwood, a locker and medical tools. The large number of vials suggests that the medicines were being shipped rather than being used by the ship's doctor. "It might be both," said Touwaide. "There might have been a physician on board; there might have been a medical cargo."



Among the recovered objects are glass from Syria, a Cypriot pitcher and lamps from Asia Minor, suggesting the vessel may have been a tramp freighter plying the ports of the entire Mediterranean.



That may be a false assumption, according to Cemal Pulak, vice president of Texas A&M University's Institute of Nautical Archaeology, who said the items might have been stored in a port and placed on the ship all at once, or salvaged from another wreck. Pulak, who is not involved with the Tuscan wreck, has excavated and studied eastern Mediterranean shipwrecks that date to the Bronze Age.

_______________

References:



Higgins, Adrian. 2011. "Ship wreck reveals ancient secrets of medicine". Washington Post. Posted: February 1, 2011. Available online: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/01/AR2011020100169.html?wprss=rss_nation/science

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